Photo montage of a smoking chimney and computer search.

Wood Smoke References and Links

Particulate Pollution and Health

Alessandrini, F. , Schulz, H. , Takenaka, S. , Lentner, B. , Karg, E. , et al. (2006). Effects of Ultrafine Carbon Particle Inhalation on Allergic Inflammation of the Lung. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 117(4), 824-830.

Ailshire, J. , & Crimmins, E. (2014). Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Cognitive Function Among Older US Adults. American Journal of Epidemiology, 180(4), 359–366.

American Lung Association. State of the Air 2013: Particle Pollution.

Bari, A. , Baumbach, G. , Kuch, B., Scheffknecht, G. (2011). Air Pollution in Residential Areas from Wood-fired Heating. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 11: 749–757.

Barrett, J.R. (2016). Connecting PM2.5 Exposure to Insulin Resistance: Oxidative Stress May Be an Intermediate Step. Environmental  Health Perspectives, 124:A236.

Belleudi, V. , Faustini, A. , Stafoggia, M. , Cattani, G. , Marconi, A. , et al. (2010). Impact of Fine and Ultrafine Particles on Emergency Hospital Admissions for Cardiac and Respiratory Diseases. Epidemiology, 21(3), 414–423.

Bennett, D. , McKone, T. , Evans, J. , Nazaroff, W. , Margni, M. , Jolliet, O. , Smith, K. (2002). Defining Intake Fraction, American Chemical Society.

Boman, BC , Forsberg, AB , Järvholm, BG (2003). Adverse Health Effects from Ambient Air Pollution in Relation to Residential Wood Combustion in Modern Society. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 29(4):251–260.

Borrego, C., Valente, J., Carvalho, A., Sá, E., Lopes, M., Miranda, A.I. (2010). Contribution of Residential Wood Combustion to PM10 Levels in Portugal. Atmospheric Environment, 44(5), 642–651.

Brook, R. , Rajagopalan, S. , Pope, 3rd, C. , Brook, J. , Bhatnagar, A. , et al. (2010).  Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease: An Update to the Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation, 121(21), 2331–2378.

Calderón-Garcidueñas, L. , Azzarelli, B. , Acuna, H. , Garcia, R. , Gambling, T. , et al. (2002). Air Pollution and Brain Damage. Toxicologic Pathology, 30(3), 373.

Calderón-Garcidueñas, L. , Maronpot, R. , Torres-Jardon, R. , Henríquez-Roldán, C. , Schoonhoven, R. , et al. (2003). DNA Damage in Nasal and Brain Tissues of Canines Exposed to Air Pollutants is Associated with Evidence of Chronic Brain Inflammation and Neurodegeneration. Toxicologic Pathology, 31(5), 524.

Chen, J. , Wang, X. , Wellenius, G. , Serre, M. , Driscoll, I. , et al. (2015). Ambient Air Pollution and Neurotoxicity on Brain Structure: Evidence from Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Annals of Neurology, 78(3), 466–476.

Davis, N. (2017, January 25). London on Pollution ‘High Alert’ Due to Cold Air, Traffic, and Wood Burning. The Guardian. Retrieved from

Dennekamp, M. , Akram, M. , Abramson, M. , Tonkin, A. , Sim, M. , et al. (2010). Outdoor Air Pollution as a Trigger for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests. Epidemiology, 21(4), 494–500.

Dockery, D. , Pope, C. , Xu, X. , Spengler, J. , Ware, J. , et al. (1993). An Association Between Air Pollution and Mortality in Six U.S. Cities. The New England Journal of Medicine, 329(24), 1753–1759.

Dominici, F. , Peng, R. , Bell, M. , Pham, L. , McDermott, A. , et al. (2006). Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Admission for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases. JAMA, 295(10), 1127–1134.

Emergency measures unveiled to combat smog over Greek cities (2013). Kathimerini English Edition. Retrieved from

Evans, G.J. , Jeong, C. (2007). Data Analysis and Source Apportionment of PM2.5 in Golden, British Columbia using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Southern Ontario Centre for Atmospheric Aerosol Research University of Toronto.

Fairley, D. (2010). Sources of Bay Area Fine Particules: 2010 Update and Trends. Publication of the Bay Area Air Quality Management District.

Fuller, G.W., Tremper, A.H., Baker, T.D., Yttri, K.E., Butterfield, D. (2014). Contribution of Wood Burning to PM10 in London. Atmospheric Environment, 87, 87–94.

Gehling, W. , & Dellinger, B. (2013). Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals and Their Lifetimes in PM2.5. Environmental Science & Technology, 47(15), 8172.

Genc, S., Zadeoglulari, Z., Fuss, S.H., Genc, K. (2012). The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System. Journal of Toxicology, 2012, 782462.

Gilmore, H. (2014) State's Top Doctor Says We Should Consider Banning Wood Fire Heaters. The Sydney Morning Herald.

Glasius, M. , Ketzel, M. , Whåhlin, P. , Jensen, B. , Mønster, J. , Berkowicz, R. , Palmgren, F. (2006). Impact of Wood Combustion on Particle Levels in a Residential Area in Denmark, Atmospheric Environment, 40, 7115–7124.

Harrabi, I. , Rondeau, V. , Dartigues, J. , Tessier, J. , & Filleul, L. (2006). Effects of Particulate Air Pollution on Systolic Blood Pressure: A Population-Based Approach. Environmental Research, 101(1), 89–93.

Hibberd M.F., Selleck, P.W., Keywood M.D., Cohen D.D., Stelcer, E., Atanacio, A.J. (2013). Upper Hunter Particle Characterisation Study. CSIRO, Australia.

Huttunen, K. , Siponen, T. , Salonen, I. , Yli-Tuomi, T. , Aurela, M. , et al. (2012). Low-Level Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter is Associated with Systemic Inflammation in Ischemic Heart Disease Patients. Environmental Research, 116, 44–51.

Janssen, N.A.H, Hoek, G., Simic-Lawson, M., Fischer, P., van Bree, L., et al. (2011). Black Carbon as an Additional Indicator of the Adverse Health Effects of Airborne Particles Compared with PM10 and PM2.5. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119 (12), 1691–1699.

Jeong, C., Evans, G.J., Dann, T. , Graham, M., Herod, D., Dabek-Zlotorzynska, E., Mathieu, D., Ding, L. Wang, D. (2008). Influence of Biomass Burning on Wintertime Fine Particulate Matter: Source Contribution at a Valley Site in Rural British Columbia. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 3684–3699.

Katanoda, K. , Sobue, T. , Satoh, H. , Tajima, K. , Suzuki, T. , et al. (2011). An Association Between Long-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Mortality from Lung Cancer and Respiratory Diseases in Japan. Journal of Epidemiology, 21(2), 132–143.

Kioumourtzoglou, M. , Schwartz, J.D. , Weisskopf, M.G. , Melly, S.J. , Wang, Y. , Dominici, F. , Zanobetti, A. Long-term PM2.5 Exposure and Neurological Hospital Admissions in the Northeastern United States. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124, 23–29.

Kleeman, M.J., Riddle, S.G., Robert, M.A., Jakober, C.A., Fine, P.M., Hays, M.D., Schauer, J.J., Hannigan, M.P. (2009). Source Apportionment of Fine (PM1.8) and Ultrafine (PM0.1) Airborne Particulate Matter during a Severe Winter Pollution Episode. Environmental Science and Technology, 43(2), 272–279.

Knapton, S. (2017, January 25). Air Pollution in London Passes Levels in Beijing … and Wood Burners are Making the Problem Worse. The Telegraph. Retrieved from

Kotchenruther, R.A. (2016). Source Apportionment of PM2.5 at Multiple Northwest U.S. Sites: Assessing Regional Winter Wood Smoke Impacts from Residential Wood Combustion, Atmospheric Environment, 142, 210–219.

Lepeule, J. , Laden, F. , Dockery, D. , & Schwartz, J. (2012). Chronic Exposure to Fine Particles and Mortality: An Extended Follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities Study from 1974 to 2009. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(7), 965.

Liao, D. , Creason, J. , Shy, C. , Williams, R. , Watts, R. , et al. (1999).  Daily Variation of Particulate Air Pollution and Poor Cardiac Autonomic Control in the Elderly. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107(7), 521-525.

Link, M. , Luttmann-Gibson, H. , Schwartz, J. , Mittleman, M. , Wessler, B. , Gold, D. , Dockery, D. ,  Laden, F. (2013). Acute Exposure to Air Pollution Triggers Atrial Fibrillation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 62(9), 816–825.

Liu C., Xu X., Bai Y., Wang T.Y., Rao X., Wang A., Sun L., Ying Z., Gushchina L., Maiseyeu A., Morishita M., Sun Q., Harkema J.R., Rajagopalan S. (2014). Air Pollution–Mediated Susceptibility to Inflammation and Insulin Resistance: Influence of CCR2 Pathways in Mice. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122, 17–26.

Ljungman, P. , & Mittleman, M. (2014). Ambient Air Pollution and Stroke. Stroke, 45(12), 3734–3741.

Loeb, M.B. (2003). Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Older People: The Need for a Broader Perspective. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(4), 539–543.

McClellan, R. (2002) Setting Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter. Toxicology, 181, 329–347.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Air Quality Division (2012). Investigation of the Impact of Burning Upon Ambient PM2.5 Levels in Owosso During November 2011.

Migliore, L. , & Coppedè, F. (2009). Environmental-Induced Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Disorders and Aging. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 674(1), 73–84.

Miller, K. , Siscovick, D. , Sheppard, L. , Shepherd, K. , Sullivan, J. , et al. (2007). Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Incidence of Cardiovascular Events in Women. The New England Journal of Medicine, 356(5), 447–458.

Mitka, M. (2006). Health Experts Denounce EPA’s Soot Limits. JAMA. 296(17), 2078.

Moulton, P. , & Yang, W. (2012). Air pollution, Oxidative Stress, and Alzheimer's Disease. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2012, 472751–472759.

Naeher, L. , Brauer, M. , Lipsett, M. , Zelikoff, J. , Simpson, C. , et al. (2007). Woodsmoke Health Effects: A Review. Inhalation Toxicology, 19(1), 67–106.

Nelin, T. , Joseph, A. , Gorr, M. , & Wold, L. (2012). Direct and indirect effects of particulate matter on the cardiovascular system. Toxicology Letters, 208(3), 293–299.

Oberdörster, G. , Sharp, Z. , Atudorei, V. , Elder, A. , Gelein, R. , et al. (2004). Translocation of Inhaled Ultrafine Particles to the Brain. Inhalation Toxicology, 16(6–7), 437–445.

Ostro, B. , Wen-Ying, G. , Broadwin, R. , Green, S. , Lipsett, M. (2007). The Effects of Components of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on Mortality in California: Results from CALFINE. Environmental Health Perspective, 115(1): 13–19.

Reisen, F., Meyer, C.P., Keywood, M.D. (2013). Impact of Biomass Burning Sources on Seasonal Aerosol Air Quality. Atmospheric Environment, 67, 437–447.

Ries, F. , Marshall, J. , & Brauer, M. (2009) Intake Fraction of Urban Wood Smoke. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(13), 4701–4706.

Robinson, D. (2015). 2.4 times more PM2.5 pollution from domestic wood burning than traffic. BMJ 350:h2757.

Rosenthal, F. , Carney, J. , & Olinger, M. (2008). Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and airborne fine particulate matter: a case-crossover analysis of emergency medical services data in Indianapolis, Indiana. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(5), 631–636.

Roux, J., Bard, D. Le Pabic, E., Segala, C., Reis, J., Ongagna, J.C., de Sèze, J., Leray, E. (2017). Air Pollution by Particulate Matter PM10 May Trigger Multiple Sclerosis Relapses. Environmental Research, 156, 404–410.

Schneider, A., Neas, L., Herbst, M., Case, M., Williams, R., Cascio, W., et al. (2008). Endothelial Dysfunction: Associations with Exposure to Ambient Fine Particles in Diabetic Individuals. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(12), 1666–1674.

Schneider, A., Neas, L., Graff, D., Herbst, M., Cascio, W., Schmitt, M., et al. (2010). Association of Cardiac and Vascular Changes with Ambient PM2.5 in Diabetic Individuals. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 7, 14.

Schwartz, J., Dockery, D.W., Neas, L.M. (1996). Is Daily Mortality Associated Specifically with Fine Particles? Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 46(10), 927–939.

Shah, Anoop S.V. , Langrish, J.P. , Nair, H. , McAllister, D.A. , Hunter, A.L. , Donaldson, K. , Newby, D.E. , Mills, N.L. (2013). Global Association of Air Pollution and Heart Failure: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Lancet, 382(9897): 1039–1048.

Shaw, J. (2005). Clearing the Air: How Epidemiology, Engineering, and Experiment Finger Fine Particles as Airborne Killers. Harvard Magazine, May-June 2005.

Shi, L. , Zanobetti, A. , Kloog, I. , Coull, B. , Koutrakis, P. , et al. (2016). Low-Concentration PM2.5 and Mortality: Estimating Acute and Chronic Effects in a Population-Based Study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124(1), 46–52.

Shrey, K. , Suchit, A. , Deepika, D. , Shruti, K. , & Vibha, R. (2011). Air Pollutants: The Key Stages in the Pathway Towards the Development of Cardiovascular Disorders. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 31(1), 1–9.

Sigsgaard T., Forsberg B., Annesi-Maesano I., Blomberg A, Bølling A, Boman C. et al. (2015). Health impacts of anthropogenic biomass burning in the developed world. European Respiratory Journal, 46(6):1577–88.

Szidat, S. , Prévôt, A. , Sandradewi, J. , Alfarra, M. , Synal, H. , et al. (2007). Dominant impact of residential wood burning on particulate matter in Alpine valleys during winter. Geophysical Research Letters, 34(5).

Thatcher, T.L., Kirchstetter, T.W., Malejan, C.J., Ward, C.E. (2014). Infiltration of Black Carbon Particles from Residential Woodsmoke into Nearby Homes. Open Journal of Air Pollution, 3, 111–120.

Turner, M. , Krewski, D. , Pope, 3rd, C. , Chen, Y. , Gapstur, S. , et al. (2011). Long-term Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Lung Cancer in a Large Cohort of Never-Smokers. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 184(12), 1374–1381.

von Bornstaedt, D. , Kunz, A. , & Endres, M. (2014). Impact of Particulate Matter Exposition on the Risk of Ischemic Stroke: Epidemiologic Evidence and Putative Mechanisms. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 34(2), 215–220.

Wang, Y., Hopke, P.K. (2014). Is Alaska Truly the Great Escape from Air Pollution? – Long Term Source Apportionment of Fine Particulate Matter in Fairbanks, Alaska. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 14, 1875–1882.

Ward, T. , & Lange, T. (2010). The Impact of Wood Smoke on Ambient PM2.5 in Northern Rocky Mountain Valley Communities. Environmental Pollution, 158(3), 723–729.

Washington State Department of Ecology Air Quality Program (2009). Health Effects and Economic Impacts of Fine Particle Pollution in Washington. Publication number: 09‐02‐021.

Wellenius, G. , Schwartz, J. , & Mittleman, M. (2006).  Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Congestive Heart Failure in Seven United States Cities. The American Journal of Cardiology, 97(3), 404–408.

Wellenius, G. , Burger, M. , Coull, B. , Schwartz, J. , Suh, H. , et al. (2012).  Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Acute Ischemic Stroke. Archives of Internal Medicine, 172(3), 229–234.

Weuve, J. , Puett, R. , Schwartz, J. , Yanosky, J. , Laden, F. , et al. (2012).  Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Cognitive Decline in Older Women. Archives of Internal Medicine, 172(3), 219–227.

Wichmann, H.E., Spix, C., Tuch, T., Wölke, G., Peters, A., Heinrich, J., Kreyling, W.G., Heyder, J. (2000). Daily Mortality and Fine and Ultrafine Particles in Erfurt, Germany Part I: Role of Particle Number and Particle Mass. Research report (Health Effects Institute), (98)5-86; discussion 87-94.

World Health Organization. Outdoor Air Pollution a Leading Environmental Cause of Cancer Deaths. Published online 2013.

Xu, X. , Liu, C. , Xu, Z. , Tzan, K. , Zhong, M. , et al. (2011). Long-term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Pollution Induces Insulin Resistance and Mitochondrial Alteration in Adipose Tissue. Toxicological Sciences, 124(1), 88–98.

Yli-Tuomi, T., Siponen, T., Taimisto, R.P., Aurela, M., Teinlila, K., Hillamo, R., Pekkanen, J., Salonen, R.O., Lanki, T. (2015). Impact of Wood Combustion for Secondary Heating and Recreational Purposes on Particulate Air Pollution in a Suburb in Finland. Environmental Science and Technology, 49 (7), 4089–4096.

Zanobetti, A. , Dominici, F. , Wang, Y. , Schwartz, J.D. , (2014). A National Case-Crossover Analysis of the Short-term Effect of PM2.5 on Hospitalizations and Mortality in Subjects with Diabetes and Neurological Disorders. Environmental Health, 13(38).

Zheng, M., Cass, G.R., Schauer, J.J., Edgerton, E.S. (2002). Source Apportionment of PM2.5 in the Southeastern United States Using Solvent-Extractable Organic Compounds as Tracers. Environmental Science and Technology. 36(11), 2361–2371.


Wood Smoke Health Effects

Awji, E. , Chand, H. , Bruse, S. , Smith, K. , Colby, J. , et al. (2015).  Wood Smoke Enhances Cigarette Smoke-Induced Inflammation by Inducing the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Repressor in Airway Epithelial Cells. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 52(3), 377.

Beard, J.D. , Beck, C. , Graham, R. , Packham, S.C. , Traphagan, M. , Giles, R.T. , Morgan, J.G.(2012). Winter Temperature Inversions and Emergency Department Visits for Asthma in Salt Lake County, Utah, 2003–2008. Environmental Health Perspectives 120:1385–1390.

Boman, C. , Forsberg, B. ,Sandström, T. Shedding New Light on Wood Smoke: a Risk Factor for Respiratory Health, European Respiratory Journal, 27, 446–447.

Bui, D.S., Burgess, J.A., Matheson, M.C., Erbas, B. Perret, J., Morrison, S. et al. (2013). Ambient Wood Smoke, Traffic Pollution and Adult Asthma Prevalence and Severity. Respirology, 18(7), 1101–7.

Chafe, Z. , Brauer, M. , Héroux, M. , Klimont, Z. , Lanki, T. , Salonen, R. , Smith, K. (2015). Residential Heating with Wood and Coal: Health Impacts and Policy Options in Europe and North America. World Health Organization regional office for Europe.

Corsini, E. , Budello, S. , Marabini, L. , Galbiati, V. , Piazzalunga, A. , et al. (2013). Comparison of Wood Smoke PM2.5 Obtained from the Combustion of Fir and Beech Pellets on Inflammation and DNA Damage in A549 and Thp-1 Human Cell Lines. Archives of Toxicology, 87(12), 2187–2199.

Cupitt, L. , Glen, W. , & Lewtas, J. (1994). Exposure and Risk from Ambient Particle-Bound Pollution in an Airshed Dominated by Residential Wood Combustion and Mobile Sources. Environmental Health Perspectives, 102(Suppl 4), 75–84.

Danielsen, P. , Loft, S. , Kocbach, A. , Schwarze, P. , & Møller, P. (2009). Oxidative Damage to DNA and Repair Induced by Norwegian Wood Smoke Particles in Human A549 and Thp-1 Cell Lines. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 674(1), 116–122.

Delgado, J. , Martinez, L. , Sánchez, T. , Ramirez, A. , Iturria, C. , et al. (2005). Lung Cancer Pathogenesis Associated with Wood Smoke Exposure. Chest, 128(1), 124–131.

Dellinger B., D’Alessio A., D’Anna A., Ciajolo, A., Gullett, B., et al. (2008). Report: Combustion Byproducts and Their Health Effects: Summary of the 10th International Congress. Environmental Engineering Science, 25(8), 1107–1114.

Díaz-Robles, L. , Fu, J. , Vergara-Fernandez, A. , Etcharren, P. , Schiappacasse, L. , et al. (2014). Health Risks Caused by Short Term Exposure to Ultrafine Particles Generated by Residential Wood Combustion: A Case Study of Temuco, Chile. Environment International, 66, 174–181.

Díaz-Robles, L. , Cortés, S. , Vergara-Fernández, A. , Ortega, J.C. (2015). Short Term Health Effects of Particulate Matter: A Comparison between Wood Smoke and Multi-Source Polluted Urban Areas in Chile. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 15: 306–318.

Elliott, C., Copes, R. (2011). Burden of Mortality Due to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution (PM2.5) in Interior and Northern BC. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 102(5), 390–3.

Forchhammer, L. , Loft, S. , Roursgaard, M. , Cao, Y. , Riddervold, I. , et al. Expression of Adhesion Molecules, Monocyte Interactions and Oxidative Stress in Human Endothelial Cells Exposed to Wood Smoke and Diesel Exhaust Particulate Matter. Toxicology Letters, 209(2), 121–128.

Gan, W. , FitzGerald, J. , Carlsten, C. , Sadatsafavi, M. , & Brauer, M. (2013). Associations of Ambient Air Pollution with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Hospitalization and Mortality. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 187(7), 721.

Ghio, A. , Soukup, J. , Case, M. , Dailey, L. , Richards, J. , et al. (2012). Exposure to Wood Smoke Particles Produces Inflammation in Healthy Volunteers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 69(3), 170–175.

Gonzalez-Avila, G. , Delgado, J. , Mendoza-Posada, D. , Sommer, B. , Ramos, C. , et al. (2013). Differences in Plasma MMPs and TIMPs Protein Expression and Chemotherapy Response in Patients with Tobacco- or Wood-Smoke-Induced Lung Cancer. Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases, 85(4), 281.

Gunbatar, H. , Sertogullarindan, B. , Ozbay, B. , Avcu, S. , Bulut, G. , et al. (2012). Chronic Effects of Environmental Biomass Smoke on Lung Histopathology in Turkish Non-Smoking Women: A Case Series. Arhiv Za Higijenu Rada I Toksikologiju, 63(3), 357.

Guzmán-Grenfell, A. , Nieto-Velázquez, N. , Torres-Ramos, Y. , Montoya-Estrada, A. , Ramírez-Venegas, A. , et al. (2011). Increased Platelet and Erythrocyte Arginase Activity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Associated with Tobacco or Wood Smoke Exposure. Journal of Investigative Medicine : The Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research, 59(3), 587.

Harvard T.C. Chan School of Public Health. (2015). Air Pollution Below EPA Standards Linked with Higher Death Rates [Press release]. Retrieved from

Hosgood, H.D. , Boffetta, P. , Greenland, S. , Yuan-Chin, A.L. , McLaughlin, J. , et al. (2010). In-Home Coal and Wood Use and Lung Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(12), 1743.

Johnson, P.R.S. (2011). Adverse Health Effects, Exposure Threats and Regulatory Challenges Relating to Outdoor Wood Boilers and Residential Wood Combustion. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, Jan 2011, 8–12.

Khan, J. , Thurlby, D. , Shahid, H. , Clayton, D. , Yates, J. , et al. (2006). Smoking and Age Related Macular Degeneration: the Number of Pack Years of Cigarette Smoking is a Major Determinant of Risk for Both Geographic Atrophy and Choroidal Neovascularisation. The British Journal of Ophthalmology, 90(1), 75–80.

Krall, J.R. , Mulholland, J.A. , Russell, A.G. , Balachandran, S. , Winquist, A. , et al. (2016). Associations between Source-Specific Fine Particulate Matter and Emergency Department Visits for Respiratory Disease in Four U.S. Cities. Environmental Health Perspectives, Advance Publication.

Krapf, M., Künzi, L., Allenbach, S., Bruns, E.A., Gavarini, I., El-Haddad, I., Slowik, J.G., Prévôt, A.S.H., Drinovec, L., et al. (2017). Wood Combustion Particles Induce Adverse Effects to Normal and Diseased Airway Epithelia. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, E-pub ahead of print.

Lal, K. , Dutta, K. , Vachhrajani, K. , Gupta, G. , & Srivastava, A. (1993). Histomorphological Changes in Lung of Rats Following Exposure to Wood Smoke. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 31(9), 761.

Larson, T. , & Koenig, J. (1994). Wood Smoke: Emissions and Noncancer Respiratory EffectsAnnual Review of Public Health, 15, 133–156.

Leonard, S. , Wang, S. , Shi, X. , Jordan, B. , Castranova, V. , et al. (2000). Wood Smoke Particles Generate Free Radicals and Cause Lipid Peroxidation, DNA Damage, NFκB Activation and TNF-α Release in Macrophages. Toxicology, 150(1), 147–157.

Montes de Oca, M., Zabert, G., Moreno, D., Laucho-Contreras, M., Lopez Varela, M.V., Surmont, F. (2017). Smoke, Biomass Exposure, and COPD Risk in the Primary Care Setting: The PUMA Study. Respiratory Care, E-pub ahead of Print.

Moreira, M.A., Barbosa, M.A., Jardim, J.R., Queiroz, M.C., Inácio, L.U. (2013). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Women Exposed to Wood Stove Smoke. Journal of the Brazilian Medical Association (Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira), 59(6), 607–613.

Naeher, L., Brauer, M., Lipsett, M., Zelikoff, J.T., Simpson, C.D., Koenig, J.Q., Smith, K. (2007). Woodsmoke Health Effects: A Review. Inhalation Toxicology, 19, 67–109.

Numan, M. , Brown, J. , & Michou, L. (2015). Impact of Air Pollutants on Oxidative Stress in Common Autophagy-Mediated Aging Diseases. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(2), 2289.

Orozco-Levi, M. , Garcia-Aymerich, J. , Villar, J. , Ramírez-Sarmiento, A. , Antó, J.M. , Gea, J. (2006). Wood Smoke Exposure and Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. European Respiratory Journal, 27, 542–546.

Pintos, J. , Franco, E. , Kowalski, L. , Oliveira, B. , & Curado, M. (1998). Use of Wood Stoves and Risk of Cancers of the Upper Aero-Digestive Tract: a Case-Control Study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 27(6), 936–940.

Rao, C. , Qin, C. , Robison, Jr, W. , & Zigler, Jr, J. (1995). Effect of Smoke Condensate on the Physiological Integrity and Morphology of Organ Cultured Rat Lenses. Current Eye Research, 14(4), 295.

Ramage, J.E., Roggli, V.L., Bell, D.Y., Piantadosi, C.A. (1988). Interstitial Lung Disease and Domestic Wood Burning. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 137(5), 1229-1232.

Sanhueza, P. , Torreblanca, M. , Diaz-Robles, L. , Schiappacasse, L. , Silva, M. , et al. (2009). Particulate Air Pollution and Health Effects for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Causes in Temuco, Chile: A Wood-Smoke-Polluted Urban Area. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 59(12), 1481.

Sankaranarayanan, L. , Semmens, E. , Noonan, C. , & Ward, T. (2015). Urinary Levoglucosan as a Biomarker for Residential Wood Smoke Exposure. International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, 96(2), 137–147.

Sarigiannis, D. , Karakitsios, S. , Zikopoulos, D. , Nikolaki, S. , & Kermenidou, M. (2015). Lung Cancer Risk from PAHs Emitted from Biomass Combustion. Environmental Research, 137, 147–156.

Schnelle-Kreis, J., Küpper, U., Sklorz, M., Cyrys, J., Briedé, J.J., Peters, A., Zimmermann, R. (2009).Daily Measurement of Organic Compounds in Ambient Particulate Matter in Augsburg, Germany: New Aspects on Aerosol Sources and Aerosol Related Health Effects. Biomarkers, 14, Issue Sup1.

Setton, E.M. , Veerman, B. ,  Erickson, A. , Deschenes, S. , Cheasley, R. , Poplawski, K. , Demers, P. , Keller, C.P. (2015). Identifying Potential Exposure Reduction Priorities Using Regional Rankings Based on Emissions of Known and Suspected Carcinogens to Outdoor Air in Canada. Environmental Health, 14, 69.

Simkhovich, B.Z. , Kleinman, M.T. , Kloner, R.A. (2008). Air Pollution And Cardiovascular Injury: Epidemiology, Toxicology and Mechanisms. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 52(9).

Solleiro-Villavicencio, H. , Quintana-Carrillo, R. , Falfán-Valencia, R. , Vargas-Rojas, M.I. (2015). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Induced by Exposure to Biomass Smoke is Associated with a Th2 Cytokine Production Profile. Clinical Immunology, 161(2), 150–156.

Sood, A. , Petersen, H. , Blanchette, C.M. , Meek, P. , Picchi, M.A. , Belinsky, S.A. , Tesfaigzi, Y. (2010). Wood Smoke Exposure and Gene Promoter Methylation Are Associated with Increased Risk for COPD in Smokers, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 182(9), 1098–1104.

Tapanainen, M. , Jalava, P. , Maeki-Paakkanen, J. , Hakulinen, P. , Happo, M. , et al. (2011) In Vitro Immunotoxic and Genotoxic Activities of Particles Emitted from Two Different Small-Scale Wood Combustion Appliances. Atmospheric Environment, 45(40), 7546–7554.

Tesfaigzi, Y., Singh, S.P., Foster, J.E., Kubatko, J., Barr, E.B., Fine, P.M., McDonald, J.D., Hahn, F.F., Mauderly, J.L. (2002). Health Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Low Levels of Wood Smoke in Rats. Toxicological Sciences, 65, 115–125.

Torres-Duque, C.A., García-Rodriguez, M.C., González-García, M. (2016). Is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Caused by Wood Smoke a Different Phenotype or a Different Entity? Archivos de Bronconeumología, 52, 425–431.

Unosson, J. , Blomberg, A. , Sandstrom, T. , Muala, A. , Boman, C. , et al. (2013). Exposure to Wood Smoke Increases Arterial Stiffness and Decreases Heart Rate Variability in Humans. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 10(1), 20.

Utah Physicians for a Healthy Environment (2016). Report on the Health Consequences of Wood Smoke. (PDF)

Weichenthal, S., Kulka, R., Lavigne, E., van Rijswijk, D., Brauer, M., Villeneuve, P.J., Stieb, D., Joseph, L., Burnett, R.T. (2017). Biomass Burning as a Source of Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Acute Myocardial Infarction. Epidemiology, E-pub ahead of print.

Weinhold, B. (2005). The Heart of Toxicity: Details of Cardiovascular Damage Uncovered. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(4), A254–A255.

World Health Organization (2014). 7 million premature deaths annually linked to air pollution. [Press release]. Retrieved from

Wu, C., Wu, S., Wu, Y., Cullen, A.C., Larson, T.V., Williamson, J., Liu, L.S. (2008). Cancer Risk Assessment of Selected Hazardous Air Pollutants in Seattle. Environment International, 35, 516–522.

Yap, P. , Garcia, C. (2015). Effectiveness of Residential Wood-Burning Regulation on Decreasing Particulate Matter Levels and Hospitalizations in the San Joaquin Valley Air Basin. American Journal of Public Health, 105(4):772–778.

Zelikoff, J. , Chen, L. , Cohen, M. , & Schlesinger, R. (2002). The Toxicology of Inhaled Woodsmoke. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B: Critical Reviews, 5(3), 269–282.


Wood Smoke and Children's Health

Abusalah, A., Gavana, M., Haidich, A. , Smyrnakis, E., Papadakis, N., et al. (2012). Low Birth Weight and Prenatal Exposure to Indoor Pollution from Tobacco Smoke and Wood Fuel Smoke: A Matched Case–Control Study in Gaza Strip. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16(8), 1718–1727.

Allen, J.L. , Conrad, K. , Oberdörster, G. , Johnston, C.J. , Sleezer, B. , Cory-Slechta, D.A. (2013). Developmental Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Particles and Preference for Immediate Reward in Mice. Environmental Health Perspectives, 121(1), 32–38.

Amegah, A. , Quansah, R. , & Jaakkola, J. (2014). Household Air Pollution from Solid Fuel Use and Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Evidence: A113920. PLoS One, 9(12),

American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Environmental Health (2004). Ambient Air Pollution: Health Hazards to Children. Pediatrics, 114(6), 1699–1707.

Backes, C., Nelin, T., Gorr, M., & Wold, L. (2013). Early Life Exposure to Air Pollution: How Bad is It? Toxicology Letters, 216(1), 47–53.

Bailey, H. , de Klerk, N. , Fritschi, L. , Attia, J. , Daubenton, J. , et al. (2011). Refuelling of Vehicles, the Use of Wood Burners and the Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in Childhood: Petrol Refuelling, Wood Burning and Childhood ALL. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 25(6), 528–539.

Balakrishna, S. , Saravia, J. , Thevenot, P. , Ahlert, T. , Lominiki, S. , Dellinger, B. , Cormier, S. (2011). Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals Induce Airways Hyperresponsiveness in Neonatal Rat Lungs. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 8:11.

Bates, D.V. (1995). The Effects of Air Pollution on Children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103(Suppl 6): 49–53.

Bell, M. L., Belanger, K., Ebisu, K., Gent, J. F., & Leaderer, B. P. (2012). Relationship Between Birth Weight and Exposure to Airborne Fine Particulate Potassium and Titanium During Gestation. Environmental Research, 117, 83–89.

Bulkow, L. , Singleton, R. , DeByle, C. , Miernyk, K. , Redding, G. , et al. (2012). Risk Factors for Hospitalization with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Children in Rural Alaska. Pediatrics, 129(5), e1220–e1227.

Calderón-Garcidueñas, L. , Solt, A. , Henríquez-Roldán, C. , Torres-Jardón, R. , Nuse, B. , et al. (2008).  Long-term Air Pollution Exposure Is Associated with Neuroinflammation, an Altered Innate Immune Response, Disruption of the Blood-Brain Barrier, Ultrafine Particulate Deposition, and Accumulation of Amyloid β-42 and α-Synuclein in Children and Young Adults. Toxicologic Pathology, 36(2), 289–310.

Calderón-Garcidueñas, L. , Franco-Lira, M. , Mora-Tiscareno, A. , Medina-Cortina, H. , Torres-Jardon, R. , et al. (2013). Early Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease Pathology in Urban Children: Friend Versus Foe Responses — It is Time to Face the Evidence. BioMed Research International, 2013, 161687.

Choi, H., Rauh, V., Garfinkel, R., Tu, Y., Perera, F.P. (2008). Prenatal Exposure to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Risk of Intrauterine Growth Restriction. Environmental Helath Perspectives, 116(5), 658–665.

Choi, H. , Wang, L. , Lin, X. , Spengler, J. , & Perera, F. (2012). Fetal Window of Vulnerability to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Proportional Intrauterine Growth Restriction. PloS One, 7(4), e35464.

Dadvand P. , Parker J. , Bell M.L. , Bonzini M. , Brauer M. , et al.  Maternal Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Term Birth Weight: a Multi-Country Evaluation of Effect and Heterogeneity. Environmental Health Perspectives, 121(3):267–373.

Daniel, A. , Shah, H. , Kamath, A. , Guddettu, V. , & Joseph, B. (2012). Environmental Tobacco and Wood Smoke Increase the Risk of Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 470(9), 2369–2375.

Dean, B. , Lopez, G. , & Krenzelok, E. (1992). Environmentally-Induced Methemoglobinemia in an Infant. Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology, 30(1), 127–133.

DeFranco, E. , Moravec, W. , Xu, F. , Hall, E. , Hossain, M. , et al. (2016). Exposure to Airborne Particulate Matter During Pregnancy is Associated with Preterm Birth: a Population-Based Cohort Study. Environmental Health : A Global Access Science Source, 15(1), 6.

Dejmek, J. , Solansky, I. , Beneŝ, I. , Leníček, J. , Ŝrám, R. (2000). The Impact of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Fine Particles on Pregnancy Outcome. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(12): 1159–1164.

Fonken, L. , Xu, X. , Weil, Z. , Chen, G. , Sun, Q. , et al. (2011). Air Pollution Impairs Cognition, Provokes Depressive-like Behaviors and Alters Hippocampal Cytokine Expression and Morphology. Molecular Psychiatry, 16(10), 987.

Geiser, M. , Allenbach, S. , Krapf, M. , Bruns, E., Jeannet, N. , Schneider, S. , et. al. (2014). Responses Of Healthy And Diseased Airway Epithelia To Primary And Secondary Aerosols From Wood Combustion. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 189, A1690–A1690

Honicky, R. , & Osborne, J. (1991).  Respiratory Effects of Wood Heat: Clinical Observations and Epidemiologic Assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives, 95, 105–109.

Karr, C. , Demers, P. , Koehoorn, M. , Lencar, C. , Tamburic, L. , et al. (2009). Influence of Ambient Air Pollutant Sources on Clinical Encounters for Infant Bronchiolitis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 180(10), 995–1001.

Koenig, J. , Larson, T. , Hanley, Q. , Rebolledo, V. , Dumler, K. , et al. (1993).  Pulmonary Function Changes in Children Associated with Fine Particulate Matter. Environmental Research, 63(1), 26–38.

Lee, G. , Saravia, J. , You, D. , Shrestha, B. , Jaligama, S. , et al. (2014). Exposure to Combustion Generated Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals Enhances Severity of Influenza Virus Infection. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 11(1), 57.

Lee, P. , Talbott, E. , Roberts, J. , Catov, J. , Bilonick, R. , et al. (2012). Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Blood Pressure Changes During Pregnancy. Environmental Research, 117, 46–53.

Lipsett, M. , Hurley, S. , Ostro, B. (1997). Air Pollution and Emergency Room Visits for Asthma in Santa Clara County, California. Environmental Health Perspectives, 105(2), 216–222.

Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (2009). Infant Inhalation Of Ultrafine Air Pollution Linked To Adult Lung Disease. ScienceDaily.

MacIntyre, E. , Karr, C. , Koehoorn, M. , Demers, P. , Tamburic, L. , et al. (2011). Residential Air Pollution and Otitis Media During the First Two Years of Life. Epidemiology, 22(1), 81.

Morris, K., Morgenlander, M., Coulehan, J.L., Gahagen, S., Arena, V.C. (1990). Wood-Burning Stoves and Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in American Indian Children. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 144(1), 105–108.

Naeher, L. , Brauer, M. , Lipsett, M. , Zelikoff, J. , Simpson, C. , et al. (2007). Woodsmoke Health Effects: A Review. Inhalation Toxicology, 19(1), 67–106.

Norris, G. , YoungPong, S.N. , Koenig, J.Q. , Larson, T.V. , Sheppard, L. , Stout, J.W. (1999). An Association between Fine Particles and Asthma Emergency Department Visits for Children in Seattle. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107(6), 489–493.

Ostro, B. , Roth, L. , Malig, B. , & Marty, M. (2009). The Effects of Fine Particle Components on Respiratory Hospital Admissions in Children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(3), 475–480.

Pedersen, M. , Giorgis-Allemand, L. , Bernard, C. , Aguilera, I. , Andersen, A. , et al. (2013).  Ambient Air Pollution and Low Birthweight: a European Cohort Study (ESCAPE). The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 1(9), 695.

Raz, R. , Roberts, A. , Lyall, K. , Hart, J. , Just, A. , et al. (2015). Autism Spectrum Disorder and Particulate Matter Air Pollution Before, During, and after Pregnancy: A Nested Case–Control Analysis within the Nurses’ Health Study II Cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives, 123(3), 264–270.

Robin, L.F., Less, P.S., Winget, M., Steinhoff, M., Moulton, L.H., Santosham, M., Correa, A. (1996). Wood-Burning Stoves and Lower Respiratory Illnesses in Navajo Children. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 15(10), 859–865.

Rodriguez-Villamizar, L. , Magico, A. , Osornio-Vargas, A. , & Rowe, B. (2015). The Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution on the Respiratory Health of Canadian Children: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies/Les Effets de la Pollution de l'Air Atmosphérique sur la Santé Respiratoire des Enfants Canadiens : Une Analyse Systématique d'Études Épidémiologiques. Canadian Respiratory Journal, 22(5), 282.

Salam, M. , Li, Y. , Langholz, B. , & Gilliland, F. (2004). Early-Life Environmental Risk Factors for Asthma: Findings from the Children's Health Study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(6), 760–765.

Sankaranarayanan, L. , Semmens, E. , Noonan, C. , & Ward, T. (2016). Urinary Levoglucosan as a Biomarker for Residential Wood Smoke Exposure. International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, 96(2), 137–147.

Schwartz, J. , Slater, D. , Larson, T. , Pierson, W. , & Koenig, J. (1993). Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Asthma in Seattle. The American Review of Respiratory Disease, 147(4), 826–831.

Siddika, N. , Balogun, H.A. , Amegah, A.K. , Jaakkola, J.J. (2016). Prenatal Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and the Risk of stillbirth: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Evidence. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 73(9):573-81 [Epub 2016 May 24].

Slaughter, J.C., Lumley, T., Sheppard, L. , Koenig, J.Q., Shapiro, G.G. (2003). Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Symptom Severity and Medication Use in Children with Asthma. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, 91(4), 346–53.

Šrám, R. , Binková, B. , Dejmek, J. , & Bobak, M. (2005). Ambient Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Review of the Literature. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(4), 375–382.

Suades-González, E. , Gascon, M. , Guxens, M. , & Sunyer, J. (2015).  Air Pollution and Neuropsychological Development: A Review of the Latest Evidence. Endocrinology, 156(10), 3473.

Wang, P. , You, D. , Saravia, J. , Shen, H. , & Cormier, S. (2013). Maternal Exposure to Combustion Generated PM Inhibits Pulmonary Th1 Maturation and Concomitantly Enhances Postnatal Asthma Development in Offspring. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 10(1), 29.

Woodruff, T. , Parker, J. , & Schoendorf, K. (2006).  Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Air Pollution and Selected Causes of Postneonatal Infant Mortality in California. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(5), 786–790.

World Health Organization Europe (2005). Effects of Air Pollution on Childen's Health and Development: A Review of the Evidence. (PDF)

Wu, J. , Hou, H. , Ritz, B. , & Chen, Y. (2010). Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Missed Abortion in Early Pregnancy in a Chinese Population. Science of the Total Environment, 408(11), 2312–2318.


Wood Smoke Toxins

Ancelet, T. , Davy, P. , Trompetter, W. , Markwitz, A. , & Weatherburn, D. (2013). Carbonaceous Aerosols in a Wood Burning Community in Rural New Zealand. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 4(3), 245–249.

Avagyan, R., Nyström, Lindgren, R., Boman, C., Westerholm, R. (2016). Particulate Hydroxy-PAH Emissions from a Residential Wood Log Stove Using Different Fuels and Burning Conditions. Atmospheric Environment, 140, 1–9.

Bailey, H. , de Klerk, N. , Fritschi, L. , Attia, J. , Daubenton, J. , et al. (2011). Refuelling of Vehicles, the Use of Wood Burners and the Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in Childhood: Petrol Refuelling, Wood Burning and Childhood ALL. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 25(6), 528–539.

Bari, M. , Baumbach, G. , Kuch, B. , & Scheffknecht, G. (2011). Air Pollution in Residential Areas from Wood-fired Heating. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 11(6), 749–757.

Barrefors, G., Petersson, G. (1995). Volatile Hydrocarbons from Domestic Wood Burning. Chemosphere, 3(8), 1551-1556.

Boström, C. , Gerde, P. , Hanberg, A. , Jernström, B. , Johansson, C. , et al. (2002).  Cancer Risk Assessment, Indicators, and Guidelines for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Ambient AirEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 110(s3), 451–488.

Brown, L. , Trought, K. , Bailey, C. , & Clemons, J. (2005). 2,3,7,8-TCDD Equivalence and Mutagenic Activity Associated with PM10 from Three Urban Locations in New Zealand. The Science of the Total Environment, 349(1–3), 161–174.

Bruns, E.A., El Haddad, I., Slowik, J.G., Kilic, D., Klein, F., Baltensperger, U., Prévôt, A.S.H. (2016). Identification of Significant Precursor Gases of Secondary Organic Aerosols from Residential Wood Combustion. Scientific Reports, 6, 27881.

Burdick, A. , Davis, J. , Liu, K. , Hudson, L. , Shi, H. , et al. (2003). Benzo(a)pyrene Quinones Increase Cell Proliferation, Generate Reactive Oxygen Species, and Transactivate the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Breast Epithelial Cells. Cancer Research, 63(22), 7825–7833.

Carvalho, F. , Oliveira, J.M. , Malta, M. (2014). Exposure to Radionuclides in Smoke from Vegetation Fires. Science of the Total Environment, 472, 421–424.

Cerqueira, M., Gomes, L., Tarelho, L., Pio, C. (2013). Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde Emissions from Residential Wood Combustion in Portugal. Atmospheric Environment, 72, 171–176.

Danielsen, P.H., Møller, P., Jensen, K.A., Sharma, A.K., Wallin, H., Bossi, R., Autrup, H., Mølhave, L., et al. (2011). Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, and Inflammation Induced by Ambient Air and Wood Smoke Particulate Matter in Human A549 and THP-1 Cell Lines. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 24 (2), 168–184.

Dutta, K., Ghosh, D., nazmi, A., Kumawat, K.L., Basu, A. A (2010). Common Carcinogen Benzo(a)pyrene Causes Neuronal Death in Mouse via Microglial Activation. PLoS One, 5(4): e9984.

Eckhardt, S. , Breivik, K. , Man, S. , Stohl, A. (2007). Record High Peaks in PCB Concentrations in the Arctic Atmosphere Due to Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Emissions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4527–4536.

Elomaa, M., and Saharinen, E. (1991). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soot Produced by Combustion of Polystyrene, Polypropylene, and Wood. Journal of  Applied Polymer Science, 42: 2819–2824.

Eriksson, A. , Nordin, E. , Nyström, R. , Pettersson, E. , Swietlicki, E. , et al. (2014). Particulate PAH Emissions from Residential Biomass Combustion: Time-Resolved Analysis with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry. Environmental Science and Technology, 48(12), 7143.

Evtyugina, M. , Alves, C. , Calvo, A. , Nunes, T. , Tarelho, L. , et al. (2014).  VOC Emissions from Residential Combustion of Southern and Mid-European Woods. Atmospheric Environment, 83, 90–98.

Fu, P.P. , Xia, Q. , Sun, X. , Yu, H. (2012). Phototoxicity and Environmental Transformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)—Light-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species, Lipid Peroxidation, and DNA Damage. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C: Environmental Carcinogenesis and Ecotoxicology Reviews, 30(1), 1–41.

Gaeggeler, K., Prevot, A.S.H., Dommen, J., Legreid, G., Reimann, S., Baltensperger, U. (2008). Residential Wood Burning in an Alpine Valley as a Source for Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds, Hydrocarbons and Organic Acids. Atmospheric Environment, 42(35), 8278–8287.

Gianelle, V. , Colombi, C. , Caserini, S. , Ozgen, S. , Galante, S. , Marongiu, A. , Lanzani, G. (2013). Benzo(a)pyrene Air Concentrations and Emission Inventory in Lombardy Region, Italy. Atmospheric Pollution Research. 4(3), 257–266.

Gras, J. , Müller, J., Symons, R. , Burniston, D.,  Mobbs, C. , Ivory, A. (2005). Dioxins and Woodsmoke in Australian Cities. Clean Air Society of Australia and New Zealand.

Guo, J. , Xu, Y. , Ji, W. , Song, L. , Dai, C. , et al. (2015). Effects of Exposure to Benzo[a]pyrene on Metastasis of Breast Cancer are Mediated Through ROS-ERK-MMP9 Axis Signaling. Toxicology Letters, 234(3), 201–210.

Hawthorne, S. , Miller, D. , Langenfeld, J. , & Krieger, M. (1992). PM10 High-Volume Collection and Quantitation of Semi- and Nonvolatile Phenols, Methoxylated Phenols, Alkanes, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Winter Urban Air and their Relationship to Wood Smoke Emissions. Environmental Science & Technology, 26(11), 2251.

Hays, M. , Smith, N. , Kinsey, J. , Dong, Y. , & Kariher, P. (2003). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Size Distributions in Aerosols from Appliances of Residential Wood Combustion as Determined by Direct Thermal Desorption—GC/MS. Journal of Aerosol Science, 34(8), 1061–1084.

Hedberg, E. , Kristensson, A. , Ohlsson, M. , Johansson, P. , Johansson, C. , et al. (2002).  Chemical and Physical Characterization of Emissions from Birch Wood Combustion in a Wood Stove. Atmospheric Environment, 36(30), 4823–4837.

Hellén, H. , Hakola, H. , Haaparanta, S. , Pietarila, H. , & Kauhaniemi, M. (2008). Influence of Residential Wood Combustion on Local Air Quality. Science of the Total Environment, 393(2), 283–290.

Hellén, H., Hakola, H., Pirjola, L., Laurila, T., Pystynen, K. (2006). Ambient Air Concentrations, Source Profiles, and Source Apportionment of 71 Different C2–C10 Volatile Organic Compounds in Urban and Residential Areas of Finland. Environmental Science and Technology, 40, 103–108.

Hristova, M. , Spiess, P. , Kasahara, D. , Randall, M. , Deng, B. , et al. (2012). The Tobacco Smoke Component, Acrolein, Suppresses Innate Macrophage Responses by Direct Alkylation of C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 46(1), 23.

Huang, J. , Hopke, P. , Choi, H. , Laing, J. , Cui, H. , et al. (2011). Mercury (Hg) Emissions from Domestic Biomass Combustion for Space Heating. Chemosphere, 84(11), 1694–1699.

Hussey, S. J. K., Purves, J., Allcock, N., Fernandes, V. E., Monks, P. S., Ketley, J. M., Andrew, P. W. and Morrissey, J. A. (2017), Air Pollution Alters Staphylococcus Aureus and Streptococcus Pneumoniae Biofilms, Antibiotic Tolerance and Colonisation. Environmental Microbiology.

Janssen, N.A.H, Hoek, G., Simic-Lawson, M., Fischer, P., van Bree, L., et al. (2011). Black Carbon as an Additional Indicator of the Adverse Health Effects of Airborne Particles Compared with PM10 and PM2.5. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119 (12), 1691 – 1699.

Kocbach, A. , Li, Y., Yttri, K., Cassee, F., Schwarze, P., et al. (2006). Physicochemical Characterisation of Combustion Particles from Vehicle Exhaust and Residential Wood Smoke. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 3:1.

Kummer, V, Mašková, J, Zralý, Z., Neča, J., Šimečková, P, Vondráček, J., Machala, M. (2008). Estrogenic Activity of Environmental Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Uterus of Immature Wistar Rats. Toxicology Letters, 180(3), 212–221.

Lohmann, R., Northcott, G.L., Jones, K.C. (2000). Assessing the Contribution of Diffuse Domestic Burning as a Source of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs to the UK Atmosphere. Environmental Science and Technology, 34(14), 2892–2899.

Marchand, N. , Besombes, J. , Chevron, N. , Masclet, P. , Aymoz, G. , et al. (2004). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Atmospheres of Two French Alpine Valleys: Sources and Temporal Patterns. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 4(5), 1167–1181.

McDonald, J. , Zielinska, B. , Fujita, E. , Sagebiel, J. , Chow, J. , Watson, J. (2000). Fine Particle and Gaseous Emission Rates from Residential Wood Combustion. Environmental Science and Technology 34(11), 2080–2091.

Morville, S. , Delhomme, O. , & Millet, M. (2011). Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Atmospheric PAH Concentrations between Rural, Suburban and Urban Areas. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 2(3), 366–373.

Oanh, N.T.K. , Reutergårdh, L.B. , Dung, N.T. (1999). Emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter from Domestic Combustion of Selected Fuels. Environmental Science & Technology, 33(16), 2703–2709.

Olsson, M., Petersson, G. (2003). Benzene emitted from glowing charcoal. Science of The Total Environment. 303(3), 215–220.

Pflieger, M., Kroflič, A. (2017). Acute Toxicity of Emerging Atmospheric Pollutants from Wood Lignin Due to Biomass Burning. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 338, 132–139.

Poulain, L. , Iinuma, Y. , Müller, K. , Birmili, W. , Weinhold, K. ,Brüggemann, E. , Gnauk, T. , et al. (2011). Diurnal Variations of Ambient Particulate Wood Burning Emissions and their Contribution to the Concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Seiffen, Germany. Atmospeheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 12697–12713.

Pozo, K. , Estellano, V. , Harner, T. , Diaz-Robles, L. , Cereceda-Balic, F. , et al. (2015). Assessing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Using Passive Air Sampling in the Atmosphere of One of the Most Wood-Smoke-Polluted Cities in Chile: The Case Study of Temuco. Chemosphere, 134, 475–481.

Quaß, U. , Fermann, M. , & Bröker, G. (2000).  Steps Towards a European Dioxin Emission Inventory. Chemosphere, 40(9–11), 1125–1129.

Reimann, C. , Ottesen, R.T. , Andersson, M. , Arnoldussen, A. , Koller, F. , Englmaier, P. (2008). Element Levels in Birch and Spruce Wood Ashes — Green Energy? Science of the Total Environment. 393(2–3), 191–197.

Ribière, C. , Peyret, P. , Parisot, N. , Darcha, C. , Déchelotte, P. , et al. (2016). Oral Exposure to Environmental Pollutant Benzo[a]pyrene Impacts the Intestinal Epithelium and Induces Gut Microbial Shifts in Murine Model. Scientific Reports, 6, 31027.

Rogge, W. , Hildemann, L. , Mazurek, M. , Cass, G. , & Simoneit, B. (1998). Sources of Fine Organic Aerosol. 9. Pine, Oak, and Synthetic Log Combustion in Residential Fireplaces. Environmental Science & Technology, 32(1), 13–22.

Schauer, J.J. , Kleeman, M. J. , Cass, G.R. , Simoneit, B.  (2001). Measurement of Emissions from Air Pollution Sources. 3. C1−C29 Organic Compounds from Fireplace Combustion of Wood. Environmental Science and Technology, 35 (9), pp 1716–1728.

Söderberg, T., Johansson, A.,  Gref, R. (1996). Toxic Effects of Some Conifer Resin Acids and Tea Tree Oil on Human Epithelial and Fibroblast Cells. Toxicology, 107(2), 99–109.

State of Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. Air Toxics Monitoring in Klamath Falls.

Tiitta, P., Leskinen, A., Hao, L., Yli-Pirilä, P., Kortelainen, M., et al. (2016). Transformation of Logwood Combustion Emissions in a Smog Chamber: Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol and Changes in the Primary Organic Aerosol Upon Daytime and Nighttime Aging. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16, 13251 – 13269.

Tully, M. , & Shi, R. (2013). New Insights in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis—Role of Acrolein in Neuronal and Myelin Damage. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14(10), 20037–20047.

University of Leicester. (2017, March 2). Air Pollution Can Alter the Effectiveness of Antibiotics and Increases the Potential of Disease, New Study Reveals. Science Daily,

Vinggaard, A.M., Hnida, C., Larsen, J.C. (2000). Environmental Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Affect Androgen Receptor Activation in Vitro. Toxicology, 145(2–3), 173–183.

Wang, Q. , & Xue, Y. (2015). Characterization of Solid Tumors Induced by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Mice. Medical Science Monitor Basic Research, 21, 81–85.

Wheat, L. , Haberzettl, P. , Hellmann, J. , Baba, S. , Bertke, M. , et al. (2011). Acrolein Inhalation Prevents Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor–Induced Mobilization of Flk-1+/Sca-1+ Cells in Mice. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 31(7), 1598–1606.

White, A.J., Bradshaw, P.T., Herring, A.H., Teitelbaum, S.L., Beyea, J. Stellman, S.D., et al. (2016). Exposure to Multiple Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Breast Cancer Incidence. Environment International, 89–90, 185–192.

White, A.J. , Chen, J. , McCullough, L.E. , Xu, X. , Teitelbaum, S.L. , Neugut, A.I. , Terry, M.B. , Hibshoosh, H. , Santella, R.M. , Gammon, M.D. (2015). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA Adducts and Breast Cancer: Modification by Gene Promoter Methylation in a Population-Based Study. Cancer Causes and Control, (12):1791–802.

Williams, R. , & Knibbs, L. (2016). Daily Personal Exposure to Black Carbon: A Pilot Study. Atmospheric Environment, 132, 296–299.

Wu, C.Y. , Cabrera-Rivera, O. , Dettling, J. , Asselmeier, D. , McGeen, D. , Ostrander, A. , Lax, J. , et al. An Assessment of Benzo(a)pyrene Air Emissions in the Great Lakes Region. US EPA.


Real Costs of Wood Burning

Danish Ecological Council (2016). Pollution from Residential Burning: Danish Experience in an International Perspective.

Fisher, G. , Kjellstrom, T. ,  Woodward, A. , Hales, S. , Town, I., et al. (2005) Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand: Christchurch Pilot Study. Health Research Council Ministry for the Environment Ministry of Transport.

Haluza, D. , Kaiser, A. , Moshammer, H. , Flandorfer, C. , Kundi, M. , et al. (2012). Estimated Health Impact of a Shift from Light Fuel to Residential Wood-Burning in Upper Austria. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 22(4), 339–343.

Khan, L., Parton, K., Doran, H. (2007). Cost of Particulate Air Pollution in Armidale: A Clinical Event Survey [online]. Environmental Health, 7(2), 11–21.

Lighthall, D., Nunes, D., Tyner, T. (2009). Environmental Health Evaluation of Rule 4901: Domestic Wood Burning, A Case Study of the Fresno/Clovis and Bakersfield Metropolitan Areas. The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District.

New South Wales EPA. Wood Smoke Amendment Q&As.

Robinson, D. (2005). Air Pollution in Australia: Review of Costs, Sources and Potential Solutions [online]. Health Promotion Journal of Australia: Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals, 16(3).

Robinson, D. , Monro, J. , & Campbell, E. (2007). Spatial Variability and Population Exposure to PM2.5 Pollution from Woodsmoke in a New South Wales Country Town. Atmospheric Environment, 41(26), 5464–5478.

Sarigiannis, D. , Karakitsios, S. , & Kermenidou, M. (2015). Health Impact and Monetary Cost of Exposure to Particulate Matter Emitted from Biomass Burning in Large Cities. Science of The Total Environment, 524, 319–330.

Shah, Anoop S.V. , Langrish, J.P. , Nair, H. , McAllister, D.A. , Hunter, A.L. , Donaldson, K. , Newby, D.E. , Mills, N.L. (2013). Global Association of Air Pollution and Heart Failure: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Lancet, 382(9897), 1039–1048.

Sigsgaard, T., Forsberg, B., Annesi-Maesano, I., Blomberg, A., Bølling, A, Boman, C. (2015). Health Impacts of Anthropogenic Biomass Burning in the Developed World. The European Respiratory Journal, 46(6):1577–88.

Taxing wood-burning stoves could save lives and money (March 1, 2016). CPH Post Online. Retrieved from:

Residential Sources

Calabrese, M., Quarantotto, M., Cantaluppi, C., Fasson, A., Bogoni, P. (2015). Quality Characteristics and Radioactive Contamination of Wood Pellet Imported in Italy. Open Journal of Applied Sciences, 5, 183-19.

Danish Ecological Council (2016). Pollution from Residential Burning: Danish Experience in an International Perspective.

Desideri, D. , Rongoni, A. , Roselli, C. , Saetta, D. , Feduzi, L. (2012). Analytical Methods for the Determination of 137Cs and 9Sr in Ash of Fuel Pellets Used in Italy. Microchemical Journal, 103, 131–134.

Eriksson, A.C., Nordin, E.Z., Nyström, R., Pettersson, E., Swietlicki, E., Bergvall, C., Westerholm, R., Boman, C., Pagels, J.H. (2014). Particulate PAH Emissions from Residential Biomass Combustion: Time-Resolved Analysis with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry. Environmental Science and Technology, 48, 7143−7150.

Fine, P. , Cass, G. , & Simoneit, B. (2004). Chemical Characterization of Fine Particle Emissions from the Wood Stove Combustion of Prevalent United States Tree Species. Environmental Engineering Science, 21(6), 705.

Fisher, L. , Houck, J. , Tiegs, P. , McGaughey,  J. (2000). Long - Term Performance of EPA-Certified Phase 2 Woodstoves, Klamath Falls and Portland, Oregon. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Happo, M. , Uski, O. , Jalava, P. , Kelz, J. , Brunner, T. , Hakulinen, P. , Mäki-Paakkanen, J. , Kosma, V. , et al. (2013). Pulmonary Inflammation and Tissue Damage in the Mouse Lung After Exposure to PM Samples from Biomass Heating Appliances of Old and Modern Technologies. Science of The Total Envirnoment, 443: 256–266.

Houck, J.E., Pitzman, L.Y., Tiegs, P. (2008). Emission Factors for New Certified Residential Wood Heaters. Presented at the 17th International Emission Inventory Conference, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Houck, J.E. (2009) Efficiency: Pick a Number, Any Number. Hearth and Home, March 2009, 148.

Kearney, J., Wallace, L. , MacNeill, M. , Héroux, M. , Kindzierski, W. , Wheeler, A. (2014). Residential Infiltration of Fine and Ultrafine Particles in Edmonton. Atmospheric Environment, 94, 793–805.

Knickmeyer, E. (2015, January 19). Coughing Neighbors Make Bay Area Rethink Outdoor Cooking. The Mercury News. Retrieved from

Leskinen, J. , Tissari, J. , Uski, O.J. , Jokiniemi, J. (2014). Fine Particle Emissions in Three Different Combustion Conditions of a Wood Chip-Fired Appliance Particulate Physico-chemical Properties and Induced Cell Death. Atmospheric Environment, 86, 129–139.

Meyer, C.P., Luhar, A., Gillett, R., Keywoods, M. (2008). Measurement of Real-World PM10 Emission Factors and Emission Profiles from Woodheaters by In Situ Source Monitoring and Atmospheric Verification Methods. Final Report of Clean Air Research Project 16 for Australian Commonwealth Department of the Environment Water Heritage and the Arts.

Ozgen, S., Caserini, S., Galante, S., Giugliano, M., Angelino, El, Marongiu, A., Hugony, F., Migliavacca, G., Morreale, C. (2014). Emission Factors from Small Scale Appliances Burning Wood and Pellets. Atmospheric Environment, 94, 144–153.

Purvis, C.R., McCrillis, R.C., Kariher, P.H. (2000) Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Organic Speciation of Fireplace Emissions. Environmental Science and Technology, 34(9), 1653-1658.

Rector, L.R. , Allen, G. , Hopke, P.K. , Chandrasekaran, S.R. , Lin, L. (2013). Elemental Analysis of Wood Fuels. Report prepared by NESCAUM for New York State Energy Research and Development Authority.

Robinson, D.L. (2016). What Makes a Successful Woodsmoke-Reduction Program? Air Quality and Climate Change, 50(3), 20–28.

Salthammer, T., Schripp, T., Wientzek, S., Wensing, M. (2014). Impact of Operating Wood-Burning Fireplace Ovens on Indoor Air Quality. Chemosphere, 103, 205-211.

Scott, A.J. , (2005). Real-Life Emissions from Residential Wood Burning Appliances in New Zealand. Ministry for the Environment Sustainable Management Fund.

Skreiberg, Ø. , Karlsvik, E. , Hustad, J. , & Sønju, O. (1997). Round Robin Test of a Wood Stove: The Influence of Standards, Test Procedures and Calculation Procedures on the Emission Level. Biomass and Bioenergy, 12(6), 439–452.

Tissari, J. , Lyyränen, J. , Hytönen, K. , Sippula, O. , Tapper, U. , Frey, A. , Saamio, K. , Pennanen, A.S. , et al. (2008). Fine Particle and Gaseous Emissions from Normal and Smouldering Wood Combustion in a Conventional Masonry Heater. Atmospheric Environmnet, 42(34), 7862–7873.

Toscano, G., Duca, D., Amato, A., Pizzi, A. (2014). Emission from Realistic Utilization of Wood Pellet Stove. Energy, 68, 644–650.

Toscano, G. , Riva, G. , Foppa Pedretti, E. , Corinaldesi, F. , Mengarelli, C. , Duca, D. (2013). Investigation on Wood Pellet Quality and Relationship between Ash Content and the Most Important Chemical Elements. Biomass and Bioenergy, 56, 317–322.

Uski, O.J. , Jalava, P. , Happo, M.S. , Leskinen, J. , Sippula, O. , Tissari, J. , Mäki-Paakkanen, J. , et al. (2014). Different Toxic Mechanisms are Activated by Emission PM Depending on Combustion Efficiency. Atmospheric Environment, 89, 623–632.

Venturini, E., Vassura, I., Zanetti, C., Pizzi, A., Toscano, G. Passarini, F. (2015). Evaluation of Non-steady State Condition Contribution to the Total Emissions of Residential Wood Pellet Stove. Energy, 88, 650–657.

Win, K.M., Persson, T., Bales, C. (2012). Particles and Gaseous Emissions from Realistic Operation of Residential Wood Pellet Heating Systems. Atmospheric Environment, 59, 320–327.

Wu, C.Y. , Herschberger, L. , Bael, D. , Fenske, M.J. , Palmer, K. (2015). Lessons Learned from the Residential Wood Combustion Surveys. (PDF) Slide Presentation to the 2015 International Emission Inventory Conference “Air Quality Challenges: Tackling the Changing Face of Emissions.” U.S. EPA.

See also references for Wood Stove Changeouts


Public Spaces and Restaurants

Ahmed, M.T. , Hadi, E.A. , El Samahy, S. , Youssof, K. (2000). The Influence of Baking Fuel on Residues of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in Bread. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 80(1–3), 1–8.

Akpambang, V. , Purcaro, G. , Lajide, L. , Amoo, I. , Conte, L. , et al. (2009). Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Commonly Consumed Nigerian Smoked/Grilled Fish and Meat. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 26(7), 1096–1103.

Anderson, K.E., Sinha, R., Kulldorff, M., Gross, M., Lang, N.P, Barber, C., Harnack, L, et al. (2002). Meat Intake and Cooking Techniques: Associations with Pancreatic Cancer. Mutation Research/Fundamental Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 506–507, 225–231.

Buonanno, G., Morawska, L., Stabile, L., Viola, A. (2010). Exposure to Particle Number, Surface Area and PM Concentrations in Pizzerias. Atmospheric Environment, 44(32), 3963–3969.

City of Cambridge Public Health Department (2017, June 19). Order Regarding Use of Solid Fuel (Wood and Charcoal) as a Cooking Source at Shepard Restaurant and Bar.

Chen, J. , Wang, S. , Hsieh, D. , Yang, H. , & Lee, H. (2012). Carcinogenic Potencies of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons for Back-Door Neighbors of Restaurants with Cooking Emissions. Science of the Total Environment, 417–418 : 68–75.

Conti, K. (2017, 15 May). Neighbors Clash over Cambridge Restaurant’s Smoke. The Boston Globe. Retrieved from

Conti, K. (2017, 19 June). Following Complaints, Cambridge Restaurant Ordered to Stop Cooking with Charcoal and Wood. The Boston Globe. Retrieved from

Daniel, C.R., Schwartz, K.L., Colt, J.S., Dong, L.M., Ruterbusch, J.J., et al. (2011). Meat-cooking Mutagens and Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma. British Journal of Cancer, 105, 1096–1104.

Farhadian, A., Jinap, S., Abas, F., & Sakar, Z. (2010). Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Grilled Meat. Food Control, 21(5), 606–610.

First, D. (2015, August 25). Cambridge’s Shepard is Setting Things on Fire. The Boston Globe. Retrieved from

Fritz, W. , & Soós, K. (1980). Smoked Food and Cancer. Bibliotheca Nutritio Et Dieta, 57–64.

Gianelle, V., Colombi, C., Caserini, S., Ozgen, S., Galante, S., Marongiu, A., Lanzani, G. (2013). Benzo(a)pyrene Air Concentrations and Emission Inventory in Lombardy Region, Italy. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 4(3), 257–266.

Horton, D. Fire Risk from Solid Fuel Commercial Cooking. Consultant's report.

Hyland A., Barnoya J., Corral J.E. (2012). Smoke-Free Air Policies: Past, Present and Future. Tobacco Control, 21, 154–161.

Jedrychowski, W. , Perera, F. , Tang, D. , Stigter, L. , Mroz, E. , et al. (2012). Impact of Barbecued Meat Consumed in Pregnancy on Birth Outcomes Accounting for Personal Prenatal Exposure to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Birth Cohort Study in Poland. Nutrition, 28(4), 372–377.

Kabir, E., Kim, K., Ahn, J. Hong, O., Sohn, J.R. (2010). Barbecue Charcoal Combustion as a Potential Source of Aromatic Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyls. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 174(1–3), 492–499.

Kumar, P., de Fatima Andrade, M., Ynoue, R.Y., Fornaro, A., Martins, de Freitas, E.D., Martins, J., et al. (2016). New Directions: From Biofuels to Wood Stoves: The Modern and Ancient Air Quality Challenges in the Megacity of São Paulo. Atmospheric Environment, 140, 364–369.

Lalonde, M. (2017, 20 June). Montreal Bagels and the Pollution Problem. Montreal Gazette. Retrieved from

Lee, H., Wang, Q., Yang, F., Tao, P. , Li, H. , et al. (2012). SULT1A1 Arg213His Polymorphism, Smoked Meat, and Breast Cancer Risk: a Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis. DNA and Cell Biology, 31(5), 688–699.

McCart, M. (2015, October 23). Hotel Monaco Restaurant Ordered to Pay $4,850 fine for Violating Air Pollution Enforcement Order. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved from

National Cancer Institute. Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk. Retrieved from

Olsson, M., Petersson, G. (2003). Benzene emitted from glowing charcoal. Science of The Total Environment. 303(3), 215–220.

Sturgis, Christina (2011, January 30). Neighbors of Hopewell's Nomad Pizzeria Complain of Toxins, Soot from Pizza Oven. Retrieved from:

Susaya, J., Kim, K., Ahn,J., Jung, M., Kang, C. (2010). BBQ Charcoal Combustion as an Important Source of Trace Metal Exposure to Humans. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 176(1–3), 932–937.

Wu, C., Bao, L., Guo, Y., Li, S., Zeng, E.Y. (2015). Barbecue Fumes: An Overlooked Source of Health Hazards in Outdoor Settings? Environmental Science and Technology, 49(17), 10607–10615.


Environment and Climate

Alves, C., Gonçalves, C., Fernandes, A.P., Tarelho, L., Pio, C. (2011). Fireplace and Woodstove Fine Particle Emissions from Combustion of Western Mediterranean Wood Types. Atmospheric Research, 101(3), 692–700.

Ahlers, C.D. (2016). Wood Burning, Biomass, Air Pollution, and Climate Change. Environmental Law, Vol 46; Vermont Law School Research Paper No. 4–16.

Australian Air Quality Group. Most Effective Ways to Reduce Your Global Warming. Retrieved from

Bahadur, R. , Praveen, P.S. , Xu, Y. , Ramanathan, V. (2012). Solar Absorption by Elemental and Brown Carbon Determined from Spectrual Observations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(43), 17366–17371.

Beaudoin, Kristine J. (2014). Reducing Black Carbon from Wood Burning in Fairbanks, Alaska. Alaska Law Review, 31(87–103).

Bond, T.C. , Doherty, S.J, , Fahey, D.W. , Forster, P.M., Bernstein, T., et al. (2013). Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: A Scientific Assessment. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 118, 5380–5552.

Bourcier, L. , Sellegri, K. , Masson, O. , Zangrando, R. , Barbante, C. , Gambaro, A. , Pichon, J.-M. , Boulon, J. , Laj, P. (2010). Experimental Evidence of Biomass Burning as a Source of Atmospheric 137Cs, Puy de Dôme (1465 m a.s.l.), France. Atmospheric Environment, 44(19), 2280–2286.

Chen, Y.  and Bond, T.C. (2010). Light Absorption by Organic Carbon from Wood Combustion. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 1773–1787.

Denier van der Gon, H.A.C. , Bergström, R. , Fountoukis, C. , Johansson, C. , Pandis, S.N. , et al. (2015). Particulate Emissions from Residential Wood Combustion in Europe – Revised Estimates and an Evaluation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics.

European Commission (2015). Paris Agreement. Retrieved from

Fernandes, A.P. , Alves, C.A. , Gonçalves, C. , Tarelho, L. , Pio, C. , Schmidl, C. , Bauer, H. Emission Factors from Residential Combustion Appliances Burning Portuguese Biomass Fuels. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 13, 3196-3206.

Herich, H., Hueglin, C., Buchmann, B. (2011). A 2.5 Year’s Source Apportionment Study of Black Carbon from Wood Burning and Fossil Fuel Combustion at Urban and Rural Sites in Switzerland. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 4, 1409–1420.

Highwood, E.J., Kinnersley, R.P. (2006). When Smoke Gets in Our Eyes: The Multiple Impacts of Atmospheric Black Carbon on Climate, Air Quality and Health. Environment International, 32(4), 560–566.

Holden, A. , Sullivan, A. , Munchak, L. , Kreidenweis, S. , Schichtel, B. , et al. (2011). Determining Contributions of Biomass Burning and Other Sources to Fine Particle Contemporary Carbon in the Western United States. Atmospheric Environment, 45(11), 1986-1993.

Iinuma, Y. , Böge, O. , Gräfe, R. , & Herrmann, H. (2010). Methyl-Nitrocatechols: Atmospheric Tracer Compounds for Biomass Burning Secondary Organic Aerosols. Environmental Science & Technology, 44(22), 8453.

IPCC (2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. (PDF of full report available)

Kirchstetter, T.W. and Thatcher, T.L. (2012). Contribution of Organic Carbon to Wood Smoke Particulate Matter Absorption of Solar Radiation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 6067–6072.

Leturcq, P. (2013). Wood Preservation (Carbon Sequestration) or Wood Burning (Fossil-Fuel Substitution), Which is Better for Mitigating Climate Change? Annals of Forest Science, 71(2), 117–124.

Maenhaut, W. , Vermeylen, R. , Claeys, M. , Vercauteren, J. , Matheeussen, C. , et al. (2012). Assessment of the Contribution from Wood Burning to the PM10 Aerosol in Flanders, Belgium. The Science of the Total Environment, 437, 226-236.

Martinsson, J. , Eriksson, A.C. , Nielsen, I.E. , Malmborg, V.B. , Ahlberg, E. , et al. (2015). Impacts of Combustion Conditions and Photochemical Processing on the Light Absorption of Biomass Combustion Aerosol. Environmental Science and Technology, 49, 14663−14671.

Meissner, K. , Alexander, K. (2016). Mass Extinctions and Climate Change: Why the Speed of Rising Greenhouse Gases Matters. The Conversation. Retrieved from

Meissner, K. , Alexander, K. Mohr, C. , Lopez-Hilfiker, F. , Zotter, P. , Prevot, A. , Xu, L. , et al. (2013). Contribution of Nitrated Phenols to Wood Burning Brown Carbon Light Absorption in Detling, United Kingdom During Winter Time. Environmental Science & Technology, 47(12), 6316.

Molina, M. , Ramanathan, V. , Zaelke, D. (2016). Paris Deal’s Carbon Cuts Miss Critical Warming Target. The Energy Collective, retrieved from

Olivares, G. , Ström, J. , Johansson, C. , & Gidhagen, L. (2008). Estimates of Black Carbon and Size-Resolved Particle Number Emission Factors from Residential Wood Burning Based on Ambient Monitoring and Model Simulations. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 58(6), 838-848.

Rau, J. Composition and Size Distribution of Residential Wood Smoke Particles. (1989). Aerosol Science and Technology, 10(1), 181–192.

Rehman, I.H. , Ahmed, T. , Praveen, P.S. , Kar, A. Ramanathan, V. (2011). Black Carbon Emissions from Biomass and Fossil Fuels in Rural India. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 7289–7299.

Robinson, D. (2011). Australian Wood Heaters Currently Increase Global Warming and Health Costs. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 2(3), 267–274.

Samburova, V. , Connolly, J. , Gyawall, M. , Yatavelli, RL , Watts, AC , Chakrabarty, RK , Zielinska, B. , et al. (2016). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biomass-burning emissions and their contribution to light absorption and aerosol toxicity. The Science of the Total Environment, 568:391–401.

UNEP (2011). Near-term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benefits: Actions for Controlling Short-Lived Climate Forcers. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya, 78pp.

US EPA (2010). Report to Congress on Black Carbon (PDF).

Venkataraman, C., Habib, G., Eiguren-Fernandez, A., Miguel, A., & Friedlander, S. (2005). Residential Biofuels in South Asia: Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions and Climate Impacts. Science, 307(5714), 1454–1456.

WHO. Reducing Global Health Risks Through Mitigation of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants. Retrieved from

Zeng, N. (2008). Carbon Sequestration Via Wood Burial. Carbon Balance and Management, 3(1).

See also references for Toxins.


Wood Stove Changeouts

Allen, R. , Leckie, S. , Brauer, M. (2009). The Impact of Stove Technology Upgrades on Indoor Residential Air Quality. Atmospheric Environment, 43(37), 5908–5915.

B.C. Wood Stove Exchange Program: Program Evaluation (2008 to 2014) (2015). Pinna Sustainability Inc.

Bell, M. L., Belanger, K., Ebisu, K., Gent, J. F., & Leaderer, B. P. (2012). Relationship Between Birth Weight and Exposure to Airborne Fine Particulate Potassium and Titanium During Gestation. Environmental Research, 117, 83–89.

Bergauff, M., Ward, T.J., Noonan, C.W., Palmer, C.P. (2009). The Effect of a Woodstove Changeout on Ambient Levels of PM2.5 and Chemical Tracers for Woodsmoke in Libby, Montana. Atmospheric Environment, 43(18), 2938–2943.

Cuff, D. (2016, August 29). Fireplace Replacement Rebates Snapped Up in a Day. The Mercury News. Retrieved from

Forcey, T. (2015). The Cheapest Way to Heat Your Home with Renewable Energy – Just Flick a Switch. The Conversation. Retrieved from

Johnston, F.H. , Hanigan, I.C. , Henderson, S.B. , Morgan, G.G. (2013). Evaluation of Interventions to Reduce Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke on Mortality in Launceston, Australia: Retrospective Analysis of Daily Mortality, 1994-2007. BMJ, 346:e8446.

Montana Department of Environmental Quality. Montana Air Quality Nonattainment Status. (Accessed June 5, 2016).

Newsham, J. (October 6, 2014). As Electricity Costs Rise, Market for Heat Pumps Takes Off. Boston Globe. Retrieved from

Noonan, C. , Navidi, W. , Sheppard, L. , Palmer, C. , Bergauff, M. , et al. (2012). Residential Indoor PM2.5 in Wood Stove Homes: Follow-up of the Libby Changeout ProgramIndoor Air, 22(6), 492–500.

Robinson, D. , Monro, J. , & Campbell, E. (2007). Spatial Variability and Population Exposure to PM2.5 Pollution from Woodsmoke in a New South Wales Country Town. Atmospheric Environment, 41(26), 5464–5478.

Söderberg, T. , Johansson, A. , Gref, R. (1996). Toxic Effects of Some Conifer Resin Acids and Tea Tree Oil on Human Epithelial and Fibroblast Cells. Toxicology, 107(2), 99–109.

Ward, T. , Palmer, C. , & Noonan, C. (2010). Fine Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Following a Large Woodstove Changeout Program in Libby, Montana. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 60(6), 688.

Ward, T. , Palmer, C. , Bergauff, M. , Jayanty, R. , & Noonan, C. (2011). Organic/Elemental Carbon and Woodsmoke Tracer Concentrations Following a Community Wide Woodstove Changeout Program. Atmospheric Environment, 45(31), 5554–5560.

Ward, T. , Palmer, C.P. , Hooper, K. , Bergauff, M. , Noonan, C.W. (2013). The Impact of a Community-Wide Woodstove Changeout Intervention on Air Quality within Two Schools. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 4, 238–244.

See also references for Residential Sources.


Citizen Science Air Monitoring

PurpleAir laser particle counters and air quality monitoring network

US EPA. Air Sensor Toolbox for Citizen Scientists, Researchers and Developers.


Organizations and General Information

Australian Air Quality Group: Woodsmoke information.

The Biomass Monitor

Burning Issues

Canadian Clean Air Alliance

Clean Air Fairbanks (blog)

Danish Ecological Council (2016). Pollution from Residential Burning: Danish Experience in an International Perspective (link to PDF)

Environment & Human Health, Inc: Information on Wood Smoke

Families for Clean Air

Gabriola Clean Air Society (blog)

Only Clean Air (blog)

Utah Physicians for a Healthy Environment (UPHE): information and a report on wood burning newsletters

For more resources, please follow these links: